LSD definition Psychology Glossary
Recently, researchers discovered that LSD is a potent psychoplastogen, a compound capable of promoting rapid and sustained neural plasticity that may have wide-ranging therapeutic benefit. LSD has been shown to increase markers of neuroplasticity in human brain organoids and improve memory performance in human subjects. In the 1950s and 1960s, some psychiatrists (e.g. Oscar Janiger) explored the potential effect of LSD on creativity. Experimental studies attempted to measure the effect of LSD on creative activity and aesthetic appreciation.
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Some notable individuals have commented publicly on their experiences with LSD. Some of these comments date from the era when it was legally available in the US and Europe for non-medical uses, and others pertain to psychiatric treatment in the 1950s and 1960s. Still others describe experiences with illegal LSD, obtained for philosophic, artistic, therapeutic, spiritual, or recreational purposes. These studies demonstrated no significant loss in LSD concentration at 25 °C for up to four weeks.
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Dying from cancer, he asked his wife on 22 November 1963 to inject him with 100 µg of LSD. In the 1950s and 1960s LSD was used in psychiatry to enhance psychotherapy known as psychedelic therapy. Some psychiatrists, such as Ronald A. Sandison who pioneered its use at Powick Hospital in England, believed LSD was especially useful at helping patients to “unblock” repressed subconscious material through other psychotherapeutic methods, and also for treating alcoholism.
LSD’s psychedelic properties were discovered 5 years later when Hofmann himself accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of the chemical. The first intentional ingestion of LSD occurred on April 19, 1943, when Hofmann ingested 250 µg of LSD. He said this would be a threshold dose based on the dosages of other ergot alkaloids.
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Persons on LSD “trips,” which may last for many hours, undergo distortions of their perceptions of space and time and may lose all contact with reality. LSD is not considered an addictive drug–that is, it does not produce compulsive drug-seeking behavior as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine do. However, LSD users may develop tolerance to the drug, meaning that they must consume progressively larger doses of the drug in order to continue to experience the hallucinogenic effects that they seek. Personal possession of small amounts of drugs including LSD was decriminalized in the U.S. state of Oregon on February 1, 2021.
Individuals with hallucinogen persisting perception disorder experience intermittent or chronic flashbacks that cause distress or impairment in life and work. As a result of the study, it is planned to find out what parts of the brain are activated when volunteers take various doses of LSD, as well as how lysergic acid diethylamide affects the subject’s attention and his ability to pass cognitive perception tests. In 1954 Woolley pointed out in a paper that lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD, is chemically similar to serotonin and is processed similarly in the brain. Preliminary studies in animals and humans suggest that ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide may have antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive properties.
- Some notable individuals have commented publicly on their experiences with LSD.
- It is most often sold on blotter paper and less commonly as tablets, in a watery solution or in gelatin squares called panes.
- Elaborate studio effects are often used, such as backwards tapes, panning, phasing, long delay loops, and extreme reverb.
- LSD may trigger panic attacks or feelings of extreme anxiety, known colloquially as a “bad trip”.
- The CIA introduced LSD to the United States, purchasing the entire world’s supply for $240,000 and propagating the LSD through CIA front organizations to American hospitals, clinics, prisons and research centers.
- The pharmacokinetics of LSD were not properly determined until 2015, which is not surprising for a drug with the kind of low-μg potency that LSD possesses.
During this time, the Central Intelligence Agency began using LSD in the research project Project MKUltra, which used psychoactive substances to aid interrogation. The CIA administered LSD to unwitting test subjects in order to observe how they would react, and the most well-known example of this is Operation Midnight Climax. LSD was one of several psychoactive substances evaluated by the U.S. Army Chemical Corps as possible non-lethal incapacitants in the Edgewood Arsenal human experiments. Since 2005, law enforcement in the United States and elsewhere has seized several chemicals and combinations of chemicals in blotter paper which were sold as LSD mimics, including DOB, a mixture of DOC and DOI, 25I-NBOMe, and a mixture of DOC and DOB. Many mimics are toxic in comparatively small doses, or have extremely different safety profiles.
Hofmann found the effects to be much stronger than he anticipated. LSD produces marked deviations from normal behaviour, probably the consequence of its ability to inhibit the action of serotonin, though the mechanism of the drug remains uncertain. LSD was used experimentally in medicine as a psychotomimetic agent to induce mental states that were believed to resemble those of actual psychotic diseases . After administration, LSD can be absorbed readily from any mucosal surface—even the ear—and acts within 30 to 60 minutes. Its effects usually last for 8 to 10 hours, and occasionally some effects persist for several days. Two serious side effects are the prolongation and transient reappearance of the psychotic reaction.
The user usually feels the first effects of the drug 30 to 90 minutes after taking it. The physical effects include dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart rate and what is lean software development blood pressure, sweating, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth, and tremors. The user may feel several different emotions at once or swing rapidly from one emotion to another.
This came as a result of the passing of 2020 Oregon Ballot Measure 110. The movement to decriminalize psychedelics in the United States includes LSD in the ongoing effort in California. In November 2020, California Senator Scott Wiener introduced a bill to decriminalize psychedelics such as psilocybin, ayahuasca, ibogaine, and LSD. In April 2021, the bill has been approved by the Senates Public Safety Committee and the Health Committee, in May 2021, it was cleared by the Senate Appropriations Committee and approved by the California Senate, and in June 2021, advanced by the Assembly Public Safety Committee. In mid 2022, the bill was gutted by committee and limited to organizing a study.
It’s funny how there are actually quite a few serious definitions of LSD on UrbanDictionary. The ignorant and uneducated fear LSD, but the intelligent, after reading about its effects, are the ones who try it, taking special care about risks and so on. DisclaimerAll content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only.
Lysergic acid diethylamide
Possession for purpose of trafficking is an indictable offence punishable by imprisonment for 10 years. On October 24, 1968, possession of LSD was made illegal in the United States. The last FDA approved study of LSD in patients ended in 1980, while a study in healthy volunteers was made in the late 1980s. Legally approved and regulated psychiatric use of LSD continued in Switzerland until 1993. Maximum plasma concentrations were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 hours after oral administration of 100µg and 200µg respectively with a plasma half-life of 2.6 hours (ranging from 2.2–3.4 hours among 40 human test subjects). LSD may be quantified in urine as part of a drug abuse testing program, in plasma or serum to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized victims or in whole blood to assist in a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a case of sudden death.
Many street users of LSD are often under the impression that blotter paper which is actively hallucinogenic can only be LSD because that is the only chemical with low enough doses to fit on a small square of blotter paper. While it is true that LSD requires lower doses than most other hallucinogens, blotter paper is capable of absorbing a much larger amount of material. The DEA performed a chromatographic analysis of blotter paper containing 2C-C which showed that the paper contained a much greater concentration of the active chemical than typical LSD doses, although the exact quantity was not determined. Blotter LSD mimics can have relatively small dose squares; a sample of blotter paper containing DOC seized by Concord, California police had dose markings approximately 6 mm apart.
It is most often sold on blotter paper and less commonly as tablets, in a watery solution or in gelatin squares called panes. The most common immediate psychological effects of LSD are visual hallucinations and illusions (colloquially known as “trips”), which vary depending on how much is used and how the dosage interacts with the brain. Trips usually start within 20–30 minutes of taking LSD orally , peak three to four hours after ingestion, and can last up to 20 hours in high doses. Users may also experience an “afterglow” of improved mood or perceived mental state for days or even weeks after ingestion in some experiences.
Even more revelatory then are the CIA and US military experiments with LSD and other hallucinogens on military and civilian test subjects. Because LSD use may cause mental problems, medicines may be also prescribed to help treat symptoms of anxiety, depression, or psychosis. But LSD can quickly lead to tolerance even after using it for just a few days.
+be a very good Joker. But just the mental image of John Malkovich as the Joker…that's like the definition of a Bad LSD trip you don't come back from. Again I love him but…yeah think about it. Or don't. Please don't. I could see that being an epic curve ball in the+
— Star'la Shi (@Starla_Shi) February 22, 2021
Oliver Sacks, a neurologist famous for writing best-selling case histories about his patients’ disorders and unusual experiences, talks about his own experiences with LSD and other perception altering chemicals, in his book, Hallucinations. In a 2004 interview, Paul McCartney said that The Beatles’ songs “Day Tripper” and “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” were inspired by LSD trips. John Lennon, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr also used the drug, although McCartney cautioned that “it’s easy to overestimate the influence of drugs on the Beatles’ music.” Daniel Ellsberg, an American peace activist, says he has had several hundred experiences with psychedelics. LSD tablet shapes have included cylinders, cones, stars, spacecraft, and heart shapes. Manufacturing LSD requires laboratory equipment and experience in the field of organic chemistry.
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Stanislav Grof has written that religious and mystical experiences observed during LSD sessions appear to be phenomenologically indistinguishable from similar descriptions in the sacred scriptures of the great religions of the world and the texts of ancient civilizations. During the mid-1960s, use of LSD spread widely in the emerging counterculture, and the shapes and colours characteristic of LSD-induced trips appear frequently in the visual art of the period. The drug also powerfully shaped the popular music of the 1960s and encouraged the mystical experimentation of those years. LSD retained a youth following into the mid-1970s, when publicity about the drug’s psychiatric ill effects slowed usage. Nevertheless, a revival of LSD use occurred in the United States and elsewhere in the 1990s.
Overall, the evidence seems to point to limited or no effect at commonly used doses. LSD causes an animated sensory experience of senses, emotions, memories, time, and awareness for 6 to 20 hours, depending on dosage and tolerance. Generally beginning within 30 to 90 minutes after ingestion, the user may experience anything from subtle changes in perception to overwhelming cognitive shifts. LSD can cause pupil dilation, reduced appetite, profuse sweating, and wakefulness.
Lysergic acid diethylamide , also known colloquially as acid, is a potent psychedelic drug. Effects typically include intensified thoughts, emotions, and sensory perception. At sufficiently high dosages LSD manifests primarily mental, visual, as well as auditory, hallucinations. Dilated pupils, increased blood pressure, and increased body temperature are typical.
Research projects continued under the supervision of the National Institute of Mental Health, a governmental agency. Mood shifts, time and space distortions, and impulsive behaviour are especially hazardous complications to an individual who takes the drug. The individual may become increasingly suspicious of the intentions and motives of those around him and may act aggressively against them. Alcoholism with LSD was revived, some researchers concluding that it might provide benefits. There was also interest in the use of LSD to relieve anxiety in patients suffering from terminal illness. Britannica celebrates the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, highlighting suffragists and history-making politicians.